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Kendriya Vidyalaya Syllabus for PGT for all Subjects

Friday 29 July 2011
Published by Roma Rahul Gupta for Chhattisgarh Online 
Kendriya Vidyalaya Syllabus for PGT for all Subjects

Syllabus for written examination for PGT (Biology)
Diversity of living world
Taxonomic aids, keys, specimen management ; Systematic and binomial system of nomenclature; Classification of living organisms( five kingdom classification, major groups and principles of classification within each group) ; General description of monera, protozoa, fungi, algae, bryophytes, pteridophyes, gymnosperms, angiosperms ( major groups of angiosperms upto sub class) ; Botanical gardens ,herbaria, zoological parks and museums .Salient features of animal ( nonchordates up to phylum level and chordates up to class level).


Structural organisation in plants and animals


Morphology, Anatomy and histology of angiosperms: Root , stem , leaf, flower , inflorescence, fruits and seeds, Tissues : Meristamatic and permanent ( epidermal, ground, vascular). Cambial activity, secondary growth, type of wood. Animal tissues ; Morphology, Anatomy and histology of annelids , insects , amphibians.


Structural and functional organization of cell


Cell cycle , detailed study of Cell division (mitosis , meiosis) ; Cell death ; Structure and function( metabolism) of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids ; Enzymology : Classification and nomenclature of enzymes ; Structure ; Mechanism of action, single substrate and bisubstrate enzyme ; Activators and inhibitors of enzymes ; Factors affecting the activity of enzymes.


Plant physiology


Water relations: Properties of water, water in tissues and cells, Transport of water and solutes( food, nutrients, gases) : Transport across cell membrane ; soil-plant-atmosphere continuum ; Minerals required by plant, their absorbable form, functions, deficiency symptoms, essentiality of mineral, N2 metabolism, biological fixation ; Cellular Metabolism: Gluconeogenesis, Glycogenesis and glycogenolysis, hormonal regulation ; Oxidation of food, respiratory efficiency of various food components ; transport and detoxification of ammonia , Lipid Metabolism ; Photosynthesis: Basic principles of light absorption, excitation energy transfer, electron transports, cycles ( C2 , C3, C4, CAM ), plant productivity, measurement of photosynthetic parameters ; Physiological responses to abiotic stresses ; Sensory photobiology ; Plant growth regulators : Growth ,differentiation / de-differentiation and re-differentiation, development ; Physiological affects and mechanism of action of plant growth hormones, Flowering : Photoperiodism and its significance, endogenous clock and its regulation, floral induction and development, vernalisation ; Plant movements.


Human biology


Morphology, Anatomy, Histology, Physiology, Control and Disorders of Digestion, Respiration, Body fluids and Circulation, Excretion, Skeleton system & muscle, Nervous; Physiology of high altitude.


Sexual Reproduction


Plants: Structural details of angiospermic flower, development of gametophytes, pollination and its types, agencies of pollination, pollen- pistil interaction, fertilization, Artificial hybridization (emasculation and bagging) development of seed and fruit ; Apomixis and Polyembryony ; Self incompatibility: Structural and biochemical aspects; methods to overcome incompatibility; Experimental Embryology; Human Reproduction: Morphology, Anatomy, Histology and Physiology of reproduction ; Neuro-endocrine control ; Sexual behavior in infancy, pre-adolescence, adolescence and of adult ; Implantation, Pregnancy and Parturition ; Mammary gland and Lactation ; Infantile mammary gland, pubertal changes in mammary gland; Structure of adult mammary gland, galactopoiesis, milk let down ; Menopause. Senescence – Impact of age on reproduction.Foetal and Embryonic Gonads and Genital ducts ;Hormonal basis of sex differentiation ; Disorders of sexual differentiation development ;Reproductive Health: Problems and strategies, Population explosion –causes and effects, birth control measures- natural methods, physical / barrier, bio-chemical, hormonal, immunological, surgical methods, IUD’s , amniocentesis, female feticide, MMR, IMR, MTP, STD’s, infertility Disorders of female and female reproductive systems – Sexual dysfunction; Infertility – Causes and curative measures ; Reproductive toxicology of environmental and industrial chemicals, drug and alcohol ;Medically assisted human reproductive technologies, GIFT, IUT, ZIFT, TET ; Embryo culture.
Genetics


Principles of Inheritance and Variation: Mendelian genetics, Inheritance of one gene, two genes, post mendelian inheritance; Recombination frequency, chromosomal theory of inheritance ; Drosophila genetics, linkage and recombinations ; Mutation :General properties of mutations ; Adaptation versus mutation ; molecular basis of gene mutation : DNA repair mechanisms ; Pedigree analysis ; Human karyotype-banding ; genetic and environmental basis of sex determination, Y- and X-linked genes; Numerical and Structural abnormalities of human chromosomes and related syndromes ; Human metabolic disorders.;Molecular Basis of Inheritance: Chemical nature of DNA and RNA, Biological functions of nucleic acids ; Search for genetic material, RNA world ; Replication ; Transcription and processing of RNA, Genetic code ; Translation, post-translational modifications ; Ribosomes and Proteins ; Regulation of Gene expression ; DNA Fingerprinting ; Gene mapping ; Chromosome banding; Restriction enzyme, nucleotide sequence comparisons and homologies ; Molecular clocks ; Genetics in modern agriculture ,animal breeding, medicine, human behaviour ; Misuse of genetics ; Genetic Counseling ; Gene therapy ; HGP ; Gene Activity in prokaryotes and eukaryotes ; Signals for gene control – Hormones and growth factors ; Totipotency & Pleuripotency ; Stem cell and Gene therapy ; Bacterial transformation, transduction and conjugation, Bacterial chromosome ; Bacteriophages : Types, structure and morphology ;Evolutionary biology: Cosmic evolution – Physical basis of life ; Theories of origin of life ; Origin of life through biochemical evolution ; Experimental evidences for origin of life ; The origin of natural selection ; Extraterrestrial life ; Evolution of the eukaryotic cell : Evolution of the Metazoa ; Evolution of chordata and the evolution of the major vertebrate classes; Origin and evolution of man : Population Genetics; Genetic variations ; Polymorphism ; Gene frequency; Hardy Weinberg equilibrium ; Genetic drift, founder effect ; adaptive radiations, ecological significance of molecular variations.


Biology in Human welfare


Health and disease ; types of diseases, common diseases in humans ; Immunology – Innate and Acquired immunity ; Passive and active immunization ; Organization and structure of lymphoid organ ; Cells of the immune system and their differentiation ; Lymphocyte traffic ; Nature of immune response ; Structure and Functions of antibodies : Antigen-Antibody interactions ; Humoral immune response ; Cell mediated immunity ; Immunological memory ; Auto-immunity ; Allergies; HLA system in human :MHC haplotypes ; Transplantation types and problems ; Immunodeficiency disorders ;etiology of HIV ; types, genetics and biochemistry of cancer ; Drugs and alcohol abuse, Addiction , drug dependence, ill effects, prevention, its abuse in adolescents and its management;Strategies for food production and enhancement: Animal husbandry, management of farm animals, breeding strategies ( natural and artificial) and their types, economic importance of each ; Plant breeding, method of release of new variety, HYV of common cereals and pulses, bio-fortification, SCP ; Tissue culturing, somatic hybridization;Microbes in Human Welfare: Technology associated and use of Microbes in household, industries, medicine, bio-active molecules, sewage treatment and STP, Ganga and Yamuna action plan, biogas production, biocontrol agents, biofertilizers.


Principles of Biotechnology


Genetic engineering tools and technique, technique of separation and isolation of DNA, cloning vectors ,electrophoresis, bio reactors, processing of its products. Tissue engineering ; Cryopreservation ; Fusion methods, detection and applications of monoclonal antibodies, DNA vaccines, Edible vaccines.;Application in agriculture : GMO for pest resistance, RNAi and dsRNA technology,Application in Medicine, genetically engineered products, gene therapy.
Molecular diagnosis : serum and urine analysis, PCR, ELISA ; Transgenic animals : their physiology, biological products and their use for testing the safety of vaccine and chemicals ; Bioethics issues ; biopyracy.


Ecology


Organism and its environment, distribution of biomes, major physical factors and the physiological responses shown by organisms ; Physical adaptation of plants and animals, rules governing adaptations ; Population attributes and growth, logistic curves, Darwinian fitness ; Population interactions and their theories ; Ecosystem structure and functions, ecosystem productivity and standing crop, decomposition in nature, energy flow in GFC / DFC, ecological pyramids, succession of community ; Nutrient cycle ; ecosystem services ; Biodiversity types and its patterns, importance of diversity, its loss and their causes, conservation strategies ; Environmental issues : Types of pollution, their indicators, causes, effects, prevention and treatment ; Deforestation, recommended forestation, reforestation, case studies of people’s participation in conservation.


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Syllabus for written examination for PGT(BIOTECH)


Introduction to Bio-technology


Historical perspectives, scope and importance, commercial potential , interdisciplinary challenge, a quantative approach-scale up – stages in commercialization of product and process, the fermenter , aseptic operation. Manufacturing quality control, good manufacturing practices, good laboratory practices, product safety, bio safety principles-environment and health risk , assessment, bio safety regulatory guidelines and controlling agency, environmental law for hazardous drugs , microbes and GMO’S , Biotechnology related issues of Public concern, Bioethics. Marketing, Biotechnology in India and global trends.
Fundamentals of Biochemical engineering-Concept of pH , buffer , physical variables , dimensions and units , measurement conventions , physical and chemical properties, data , stoichiometry , errors in data and calculation, absolute and relative un certainty and types of error statistical analysis presentation of experimental data , data analysis , trends , testing mathematical models, goodness to fit , use of graph paper with logarithmic coordination and plotting of data process flow diagrams, material balance, fluid flow and mixing , mass transfer , heat transfer, unit operations, homogenous reactions , microbial growth , substrates utilization and product formation kinetics, reactor engineering – rheology of fermentation fluids , scale up concepts, design of fermenting media, aseptic transfer, various microbial and enzyme reactors, instrumentation in bio reactors. Biotechnology and Society-Public perception of Biotechnology intellectual property, patents, reading a patent, International scenario, National scenario, Varietals protection, ethical issues in agriculture and health care.




Biochemistry
Biomolecules- Structure and Dynamics; Thermodynamics: concept of free energy,
entropyBuilding blocks of carbohydrates – sugars and their derivatives , chemical properties of sugar , polysaccharides – glycogen , cellulose, chitin etc.Building blocks of proteins – Amino acids, Chemical properties of amino acids, regulation of amino acid metabolism and inborn errors of metabolism determination of sequencing of amnino acids , fragmentation of polypeptide chain , 3D structure of proteins, secondary , tertiary and quarternary structure of proteins, vitamins and enzymes. Lipids –simple fatty acids , Sphingosine, Glycerol and cholesterol and their chemical properties , lipid metabolism and its regulation. Nucleic acids- Nucleo tides, chemical properties , optical activities and stereo chemistry of bio molecules, polarimetry , conformations and configuration, RNA, DNA, 3D model of DNA , chromosome structure , circular and super coiled DNA. Biochemical transformations-carbohydrates metabolism-glycolytic path way, krebs cycle, homo fermentative path way. KH , PPP, photosynthesis- light reaction Kelvin cycle, nitrogen fixtation , nitrogen cycle, nitrogenase , gluconeogenesis, electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation , precursor-product relationship, supramolecular assembly, biomolecular database, biomembranes, structure and function of liposomes and their applications


Techniques, Instrumentation and principles


Techniques based on molecular weight or size- Centrifugation and ultra centrifugation, gel permeation , osmotic potential.Techniques based on polarity- Ion exchange chromatography, elctrophoresis, isoelectric focusing , hydro phobic interaction , partition chromatography.Techniques based on spectroscopy- Colorimetry, UV visible , spectro photometry, fluorescence , spectroscopy , x-ray crystallography , mass spectrometry , radio isotopes techniques; Techniques based on solubility – Salt perceipitation , precipitation with organic solvent.
Cellular techniques- Microscopy-LM,TEM,SEM cell sorting , cell fractionation , cell growth determination , electronic particle counter, culture based counting methods Genetical techniques- Chromosomal techniques- Staining , bending, pattern, Karyotyping, chromosomal painting. Mutagenic techniques- Bacterial and seed mutagenesis , recombination in bacteria, conjugation, transduction, breeding methods in plants, pedigree analysis, DNA isolation.


Cell Biology


Cell structure and components- Cell membrane – composition, Structure, membrane , associated receptors, artificial membrane, membrane proteins, principals of membrane organization, cell junction, membrane lipids. Cell organellels – Golgi bodies, Endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, per oxisomes, ribosomes, internatilsation of macro molecules , endo and exocytosis , mitochondrial structure and oxidative phosphorylation. Cytoskeleton- Micro tubules , micro filaments, lattice and cytosol ;Nucleus –nuclear envelope , nucleolus , chromosome tissue and organs , evolution and population , speciation , biodiversity , adaptation, natural selection, organization of life, size and complexity , interaction with environment .Cell growth and development - Cell division, cell cycles, cell communication and signal transduction , movement, nutrition, gaseous exchange , internal transport, maintaining the internal environment, reproduction, animal and plant development, immune response, apoposis, plant-pathogen relation, secondary metabolism, defence strategy in microbes and insects.




Genetics and Molecular Biology


Principles of Genetics- Mendelian genetics, role of chromosome in inheritance, multiple alleles , linkage and crossing over , genetic recombination, genetic mapping, gene interaction , sexed linked inheritance , extra nuclear inheritance, quantitative inheritance, genes at the population level, discovery of DNA as genetic material-Griffiths experiment, Hershey and Chase experiment, mutagenesis , types of mutations, genome, chromosome and gene mutations, molecular mechanism of mutation , DNA repair , genetic disorder, transposons, animal and plant breeding. Genome function- Genome organization, sequencing DNA replication, fine structure of gene, from gene to protein, transcription , genetic code , translation, regulation of gene expression, genetic basis of development, genetic of cancer, immuno genetics, evolutionary genetics.


Protein and gene manipulation


Protein Structure and engineering.-3D shape of proteins, non covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds, van der waals forces, hydro phobic interaction. Structure function relationships in proteins – Chymotrypsin, molecular disease. protein finger printing, 2D gel electrophoresis, purification of proteins, characterization of proteins , proteins based products, mass spectrometry, blood products and vaccine , therapeutic antibodies and enzymes, hormones and growth factor, regulatory factor , analytical application , industrial enzymes , functional non catalytic proteins, nutraceutical proteins, designing proteins, proteomics, genes and proteins type of proteomics .
Recombinant DNA Technology -Tools of recombinant DNA technology, restriction
enzymes, making of recombinant DNA , DNA library, introduction of recombinant DNA into host cells-plasmid , cosmid, vectors, lambda, bacteriophage , identification of recombinants , PCR, DNA probes, hybridization techniques , DNA sequencing, site directed mutagenesis, cloning strategies.
Genomics and Bioinformatics- Structural and functional genomics, genome
sequencing projects, genetic mapping, gene prediction and counting , genome similarity, SNPs and comapartive genomics , functional genomics-micro array techniques , fluorescence , in situ hybridization , comparative DNA hybridisation, history of bio informatics, sequences and nomenclature , DNA and protein sequences, information sources-major databases, blast family search tools, resources for gene level sequences , analysis using bio informatics tools.


Cell culture technology


Microbial cell culture and its applications-nutrients , energy sources, sterilization procedures, environment for microbial growth, aeration and mixing , equipments for culture- bioreactors, Types of microbial culture, measurement and kinetics of microbial growth, scale up of microbial process, isolation of microbial products, strain isolation and improvement, application of microbial culture technology bioethics.
Plant Cell culture and applications- Cell and tissue culture techniques- Nutrient media, types of cultures, plant regeneration pathways, application of cell and tissue culture, gene transfer methods in plants, transgenic plants with beneficial traits, stress tolerance, herbicide tolerance, insect resistance, transgenic plant as bio reactor, diagnostics in agriculture and molecular breeding, morphological and molecular markers , bioethics.
Animal cell culture and applications- Primary cell culture, secondary cell culture and lines, types of cell lines , physical environment , osmolality , media , pH temperature cryopreservation, equipments required for animal cell culture, carbon dioxide incubators, Characterisation of cell lines- Scale up of animal culture, applicantions of animal cell culture-Tissue plasminogen activator, factor VIII , erythropoietin, hybridoma technology, mono colonal antibodies, therapeutic antibodies, stem cell technology- morphological approach, in vitro clonal assay, long term marrow culture, embryonic stem culture, cell and tissue engineering , bioethics in animal genetic engineering.


Immunology


Immune system , molecules of immune system, immuno globulins , MHCs, cytokines, T cell receptor, generation of antibodies and T cell receptor diversity , complement system, humoral and cell mediated immunity, immune regulation, vaccines , hybridoma, immuno deficiencies, AIDS, transplantation immunity and cancer.


Applied Biotechnology


Biotechnology industry , Bioinformatics, molecular technology for diagnosis of genetic disorders, onco viruses and immunity, lymphocyte, homoestasis, viral induced modulation of host immune response, HLA polymorphism, induction and maturation of B cells, safe limits for radiation determined , radiation carcinogenesis.


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Syllabus for written examination for PGT(CHEMISTRY)


S.No. Topic (Details of the syllabus)
1. Some Basic concepts of Chemistry: Scope of chemistry-
Historical approach to nature of matter - states of matter, properties of matter and its measurement, S. I system of units, Uncertainty in measurements, dimensional analysis, Laws of chemical combination, atomic and molecular masses, Mole concept and molar masses, percentage composition, empirical and molecular masses, equivalent weight, concept of limiting reagent
2 States of Matter: Gases, liquids and solids, three states of matter, types of intermolecular forces.
The laws governing ideal gas behaviour, Dalton’s law of partial pressure, Kinetic molecular theory of ideal gases, Maxwell Boltzmann distribution law on molecular motion, real gases – deviation from ideal behaviour, vander Waals equation.
Liquid and their properties.
Solids: Classification of solids, fundamental types of lattices, two and three dimensional lattice types, Simple crystal structures, Transformation of crystal structure on varying temperature, Bragg’s law, density in solids, energy band, band gaps, semiconductors, magnetic and dielectric properties, stoichiometric and non- stoichiometric defects in solids.
3 Structure of Atom:Structure of Atom (Classical Theory), Dalton’s atomic theory, Bohr’s model of atom, Structure of atom (modern theory), de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principal, Classical wave equation, Schrödinger’s wave equation, Probability distribution curve, Quantum numbers, Pauli’s exclusion principle, Aufbau principle, Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity.
4 Equilibrium: Reversible reactions, criteria of equilibrium, Law of mass action, equilibrium constant, Kc and Kp , Le Chatelier principle, Ionic equilibrium, Ostwald’s dilution Law, solution of acids, bases, ionic equilibria in solution, Common ion effect – its application to qualitative analysis, acids and bases, Bronsted- Lowry theory of acids and bases, Lewis concept of acid and bases, relative strengths of acids and bases, their quantitative estimation, buffer solution and its use, determination of pH, theories of indicators, conductometric titration, Solubility product, hydrolysis.
5. Surface Chemistry:Adsorption, absorption, sorption, Physical adsorption, Chemisorption adsorption, isotherms ( Freundlich, Langmuir), application of adsorption, types of Catalysis theories of catalysis, classification of colloids, preparation of Colloidal Solution (lyophobic and lyophilic), Special characteristics of colloidal solutions , electrophoresis, Precipitation of colloids – Hardy Schulze law, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids, Emulsion and Gels.
6 Chemical Kinetics: Theories of reaction rates, rate of reaction , molecularity and order of reaction, Fast reactions- Luminescence and energy transfer process, reaction mechanisms(Simple and complex reactions).
7 Redox Reaction and Electrochemistry: Oxidation and reduction, redox reaction and its application, oxidation number, Strong and weak electrolytes, activity coefficient, conductance and conductivity, Kohlrausch law, resistance and resistivity molar conductivity, equivalent conductivity, Qualitative and quantitative aspect of electrolysis, electrochemical cell and electrolytic cell, Electrode and electrode potential and standard electrode potential, Electrochemical series and its applications, Nernst equation and its application, Equilibrium constant and EMF of the cell.


8 Solutions:Solution and its types, expression of concentration of solution, solubility and factors affecting the solubility of a solid in a liquid (temperature and pressure), Vapour pressure of a liquid, Raoult’s law for both volatile and non volatile solute,Ideal and non ideal solution, Colligative properties, abnormal molecular masses and Van’t Hoff factor.


9 Chemical bonding and Molecular Structure: Valence electrons and Lewis structures, Ionic bond, Covalent bond, Bond parameters ,Co-ordinate bond, polarity and dipole moment, Quantitative idea of – valence bond theory, molecular orbital theory (LCAO), Concept of hybridization involving s, p, d orbitals, Hydrogen bond, Resonance.
10. Thermodynamics:Macroscopic properties of the system, modes of transfer of energy between system and surrounding, Phase transition, phase rule and phase diagram, First Law, second law and third law, of thermodynamics. Internal energy and enthalpy of the reaction, their measurement and application, spontaneity of process, Entropy and spontaneity, Helmholtz and Gibb’s free energy, Thermodynamics of electrochemical cells.


11. Classification of elements and periodicity in properties: Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, periodic laws, name of the elements with Z>100 according to IUPAC system, classification of elements into s, p, d, f –block elements and their characteristics,
Periodic trends in the properties of elements – Ionization enthalpy, Electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, atomic radii, ionic radii, periodicity of valency or oxidation state.


12. Hydrogen:Position of Hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, Preparation of hydrogen, on small and commercial scale, hydrides, water, hard and soft water, heavy water, hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen economy, hydrogen as a fuel.


13. General principles and processes of isolation of elements and s – block elements: Principles and methods of extraction, oxidation and reduction as applied to the extraction procedures of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe.
s – block elements, general introduction – Electronic configuration, occurrence,
Anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship,
Trends in variation of the properties, reaction of alkali and alkaline earth metals.
Preparation and properties and uses of some important compounds: - sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide and calcium carbonate, industrial uses of lime and lime stone, biological importance of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium.


14. p – Block Elements: Electronic configuration, variation in physical and chemical properties of groups 13 to 18, physical and chemical properties of borax, boric acid, boron hydride, silicones, preparation and uses, preparation, properties and uses of nitrogen, ammonia, nitric acid and oxides of nitrogen, phosphorus – allotropic forms, preparation and properties of phosphine,
phosphorus pentachloride and phosphorus trichloride, preparation, properties and uses of oxygen and ozone, hydrides and halides of 16 group elements, their structure and nature, allotropic forms of sulphur- their preparation, preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide, industrial preparation of oxo-acids of sulphur, preparation and properties of halogen and halogen acids, inter halogen compounds, pseudohalide ions. Oxo-acids of halogens, their structure and nature, preparation, properties and uses of xenon fluorides, oxides of xenon and xenon oxo fluorides.


15. The d – and f- Block Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration and general trend in the properties of first row transition metals like metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, coloured ion formation, catalytic properties, magnetic properties, oxides, halides and sulphides of first row transition metals, complex compound formation etc. Preparation, properties and structures of KMnO4 and K2Cr2 O7, lanthanoids and actinoids.


16. Co-ordination Compounds and organometallics: Meaning of co-ordination compounds, Werner’s theory, ligands – their types, IUPAC nomenclature of co- ordination compounds, isomerism, bonding in co-ordination compounds, colour, magnetic properties and, stabilities of co-ordination compounds. Chemical and biological importance of co-ordination compounds, metal carbonyls: preparation, properties and bonding, organometallic compounds and their classification.


17. Organic Chemistry : Some Basic Principles and Techniques: General Classification of organic compounds, Shapes of organic compounds-Hybridisation(sp, sp2,sp3), Structural representation of organic molecules, Functional groups, Homologous, series. Common or trivial names, nomenclature of aliphatic, aromatic and substituted aromatic compounds.
Isomerism : Structural and Stereo isomerism Fundamental Concepts in Reaction Mechanism: Cleavage of covalent bond, Types of attacking species, electron movement in organic reactions, electronic displacement in a covalent bond and types of organic reactions.
Methods of purification of organic compounds: Qualitative analysis, Quantitative analysis., estimation of the elements and determination of empirical and molecular formula.


18. Hydrocarbons: Classification of hydrocarbons.
Alkanes: Conformations (Newmann and Sawhorse formulae), Physical properties, Chemical reactions
Cycloalkanes: Preparation, physical and chemical properties, stability of cycloalkanes(Bayer strain theory), chair and boat forms of cyclohexane.
Alkenes:, structure of double bond, geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions.
Alkadienes: Classification of dienes, Preparation of conjugated dienes, Chemical properties(1,2 and 1,4- addition to conjugated dienes).
Alkynes:, structure of triple bond, physical properties, methods of preparation Chemical properties, Acidic nature of alkynes
Aromatic Hydrocarbons:, Structure of benzene, resonance, aromaticity (Huckel’s rule) Chemical properties, mechanism of electrophilic substitution direct influence of substituents in monosubustituted benzene.


19. Environmental Chemistry: Environmental pollution, Atmospheric pollution, Tropospheric pollution(Air pollution), Major air pollutants, Control of air pollution, Smog(Chemical and Photochemical smog), Stratospheric pollution: Ozone layer and its depletion, Acid rain, Green House Effect and Global warming, Water pollution, Soil pollution and Industrial waste.


20. Haloalkanes and Haloarenes: Classification, methods of preparation of haloalkanes and haloarenes, their physical properties, tests to distinguish between alkyl and aryl halides, mechanism of SN1 and SN2 reactions, elimination reactions (Saytzeff Rule, E1 & E2 mechanism).Poly halogen compounds: Preparation and properties.




21. Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers: Classification, preparation, properties and uses, tests to distinguish between primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. Distinctions between alcohols and phenols. Preparation of ethers , physical and chemical properties.


22. Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids: Structure of carbonyl group, preparation of aldehydes and ketones, physical , Chemical properties and uses, tests to distinguish between aldehydes and ketones .Preparations of carboxylic acids preparation properties and uses.


23. Amines (Organic compounds containing nitrogen ): Classification, Structure of amino group, preparation, Physical, Chemical properties, tests to distinguish between primary, secondary and tertiary amines


24. Polymers: Polymerization, Classification of polymers based on : origin, structure, molecular forces, mode of polymerization. Addition polymerization Condensation polymerization(Step-growth polymerization) Preparation of condensation polymers Synthetic and natural rubber and vulcanization, Determination of molecular mass of polymers:. Poly dispersity index(PDI). Bio-degradable polymers like PHBV.


25. Biomolecules(Biochemistry):Carbohydrates: Classification of carbohydrates , Structural determination of glucose and fructose on the basis of their chemical properties, Open chain (Fischer) structure, cyclic structure(Haworth form),  and  forms of glucose, Mutarotation, anomers and epimers, Chemical reactions of glucose, Reducing and non-reducing sugars, Configuration of glucose and fructose. Disaccharides Sucrose, Haworth representation of disaccharides, Polysaccharides, Starch, Cellulose, and amylopectin structures, Functions of Carbohydrates in living organisms. Carbohydrate metabolism, glycolysis, electron-transport chain,
Proteins: Amino acids, Zwitter ion, Iso-electric point, peptides and peptide bond, Fibrous proteins, Globular proteins and their functions, Primary, Secondary(Helix and pleated sheet structures) and tertiary structure of proteins, denaturation and renaturation, Enzymes, specificity and mechanism of enzyme activity , coenzymes, applications of enzymes.
Nucleic acids : Nucleosides, Nucleotides, Structure of ATP, Photosynthesis(Light and dark reactions) Primary and Secondary structure of DNA(Double Helix structure) , biological functions of nucleic acids, Replication, Protein synthesis (Transcription, Translation, mutation), genetic code, genetic errors, Vitamins, classification, diseases caused by the deficiency of vitamins, Hormones (steroid hormones and non-steroid hormones) and their functions.
26. Chemistry in Everyday life: Drugs and medicines - designing a drug, drug metabolism, classification of drugs, enzymes as drug targets, action of drug through drug receptor interaction, types of drugs: Antipyretics, Analgesics, antiseptics, disinfectants, tranquilizers, antimicrobials, antibiotics(Narrow spectrum and broad spectrum antibiotics), antifertility drugs, antihistmmines, antacids. Chemicals in food, Food preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, Soaps and detergents, Preparation soaps(Saponification) and detergents, cleansing action of soaps, advantages of detergents over soaps, Deodorants, Edible colours, antioxidants.


Syllabus FOR WRITTEN EXAMINATION FOR PGT(COMMERCE)


PART – I
BUSINESS STUDIES AND MANAGEMENT


• Introduction to Business– Concepts, characteristics, objectives. Classification of business as industry and commerce. Distinctive features of business - Business, profession and employment. Choice of Form of Organization .Large Scale and Small Scale Business-.Assistance by Government to Small Scale Sector.


• Form of Business Organization – Sole Proprietors, Joint Hindu Family, Partnership, Joint Stock Company and its formation, Cooperative organization.


• Business ownership– Private, public and Joint sector. Public Enterprises, Role-dynamics of Public Sector, Global Enterprises (Multinational Companies), Joint Ventures.


• Business Services – banking, insurance, transportation, warehousing, communication, Impact of Technology on Business Services.


• Trade: Internal Trade Retail and Wholesale trade, Emerging modes of business-franchisee, E-business and Outsourcing. International Business–Export-Import – Procedure and documentation, EPZ/SEZ . International Trade Institutions and Agreements – WTO, UNCTAD, World-Bank, IMF.


• Business Finance: Sources – owners and borrowed fund, Sources of raising finance, Equity and preference Shares, GDR,ADR, Debentures, Bonds – Retained Profit, Public Deposits, Loan from Financial Institutions and commercial banks, Credit-rating and rating agencies, Trade credit, Micro-credit.


• Social Responsibility of Business, Business Ethics, Environment protection.


• Management – concept, objectives, nature of management as Science, Art and Profession, levels, Principles of Management general and scientific.




• Business Environment – meaning, importance, dimensions, changing business environment–special reference to liberalization, privatization and globalization, Business - a Futuristic vision.


• Management Function – Planning, organizing, staffing, directing, controlling and coordination


• Business Finance: Financial Management – meaning, scope, role and objectives, financial planning, Capital structure, leverage, Fixed and working capital – meaning and factors affecting its requirements.


• Financial Market – Money Market-nature, instruments, Capital Market- Primary and secondary, Stock exchange, NSEI, OTCEI, Procedures, SEBI.


• Human Resource Management– meaning , importance, man-power estimation , Recruitment and selection, Training and development , Compensation, Performance Evaluation


• Marketing – meaning, functions and role, Levels of Marketing , Changing facets of marketing , Product-mix, Models of Marketing.
• Organizational Behaviors : Individual behaviors , Motivation–concepts and applications, Personality perception, Learning and attitude, Leadership and its approaches, Communication , Group dynamics.


• Emerging Trends in Management – Business Process Reengineering, Total Quality Management, Quality Circles, Benchmarking, Strategic Management, Knowledge Management, Business Standardization and ISO.


• Consumer Protection – Meaning, importance, consumers’ rights, Consumers’ responsibilities, Consumer awareness and Legal redressal with special reference to consumer Protection Act, Role of consumer organization and NGOs.


PART –II


FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS


• Accounting: Meaning, objectives, qualitative characteristics of Accounting information, Accounting Principles, Accounting concepts, Accounting standards, Cash and Accrual Basis of Accounting.


• Process of Accounting :Voucher, transaction ,Accounting Equation, Rules of Debit and Credit, Book of original entry-Journal and Special Purpose Books, Ledger ,posting from Journal and subsidiary books, Balancing of Accounts, Trial Balance and Rectification of Errors .Bank Reconciliation Statement.


• Accounting for depreciation ,Provisions and Reserves ,Bills of Exchange, Non-Profit Organization , Partnership Firms - Reconstitution of Partnership (Admission ,Retirement ,Death and Dissolution),Account of Incomplete Records, Consignment and Joint ventures.


• Accounting of Joint stock Companies: Share capital types of shares, accounting for issue, allotment forfeiture and re-issue of shares. Debentures –types, issue and method of redemption . Final Accounts of Sole proprietor and Joint Stock Companies. Emerging trends of presentation of Final Accounts.


• Accounting for liquidation.


• Financial Statement Analysis: Meaning, significance, limitation .Tools for Financial Statement Analysis-comparative statements, common size statements, Trend analysis, accounting ratios.


• Fund Flow Statement and Cash Flow Statement: Meaning, objectives, preparation as per revised standard issued by ICAI.


• Cost Accounting- Nature, functions . Job costing, Process costing, Marginal costing, Cost-volume-profit relationship. Cost control and cost reduction techniques


• Computers In Accounting: Introduction to Computers and Accounting Information System, Application of Computers in Accounting, Automation of Accounting process, designing accounting reports, MIS reporting, data exchange with other information system. Ready made , customized and tailor made Accounting Systems.
• Accounting And Database Management System –meaning, concept of entity and relationship in an accounting system, Data Base Management System(DBMS) in accounting.


• Inflation accounting and Accounting for Human Resource of an Organization and Social Responsibility.




Syllabus for written examination for PGT (Computer Science)


COMPUTER SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE


1. THE COMPUTER SYSTEM


System buses: Computer Components, Computer function, Interconnection Structures, Bus Interconnection, PCI.


Internal Memory: Computer Memory System Overview, Semiconductor Main Memory, Cache Memory, Advanced DRAM Organization.


Input/ Output: External Devices, I/O Modules, Programmed I/O, Interrupt- Driven I/O, Direct Memory Access, I/O Channels and Producers, The External Interface.


Operating System Overview.


2. THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT


Computer Arithmetic: The Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU), Integer Arithmetic, Floating-Point Representation, Floating-Point Arithmetic.


Instruction Sets: Characteristics and Function, Machine Instruction Characteristics, Types of Operands, Types of Operation, Addressing Modes and Formats, Register Organization, The Instruction Cycle, Instruction Pipelining.


Assembly Language


The Control Unit: Micro-operations, control of the CPU, hardwired Implementation, Micro program Controller, Basic Concepts, Microinstructions, Sequencing, Microinstruction Execution.


Reduced Instruction Set Computer: An Introduction.


OPERATING SYSTEMS


Introduction: System software, resource abstraction, OS strategies; multiprogramming, batch, time sharing, personal computers and workstation, process control & real time systems, processes & threads using FORK, JOIN, QUIT.


Operating System Organization: Factors in operating system design, basic OS function, implementation consideration: process modes, kernels, methods of requesting system services, device drivers.


Device Management: Service management approaches, buffering, device drivers, performance tuning.


Process Management: System view of the process and resources, initiating The OS, process address space, process abstraction, resource abstraction, process hierarchy.


Scheduling: Scheduling Mechanisms, Strategy selection, non-pre-emptive and pre-emptive strategies.


Synchronization Principles: Interactive processes, critical section, deadlock, coordinating processes, semaphores, spread memory, multiprocessors, events, monitors and the inter-process communication.


Deadlocks: System deadlock model, prevention strategies, hold and wait, circular wait, allowing pre-emption, Banker’s Algorithm, serially reusable resources, consumable resources, general resources system recovery.


Memory Management: Mapping address space to memory space, memory allocation strategies, fixed partition, variable partition, segmentation.


File Management: Directory structure, basic file operations and their implementation.
Protection and Security: Policy mechanism, authentication, internal access authorization.


DIGITAL ELECTRONICS
Fundamental Concepts: Digital signal, NAND, NOR and Exclusive-OR operation, Boolean Algebra, Basic Digital Circuits.
Number system and Codes: Primary, Octal, Hexadecimal, Signed Numbers Codes, hamming codes.
Combinational Logic Design: K-map representation of logical functions and simplification using K-map of 4 and 5 variables, Quine- McCluskey’s method.
Multiplexers, Demultiplexers, Adders and Subtracters, multipliers, Comparators, Parity generators and checkers, Code converters, Priority Encoders, Decoders.
Races, hazards, and asynchronous behavior
Flip-Flops: Clocked RS flip flop, D-type flip flop, Excitation table of flip flop, Edge triggered flip flop, Clocked flip flop design.
Sequential Logic Designs: Registers, Shift registers, Asynchronous counters, synchronous counters, RAM, ROM.


PROGRAMMING FUNDAMENTALS


Basic Computer Organization: Functional Units, basic I/O devices and storage devices; Representation of integers, real (fixed and floating point), characters (ASCII and Unicode); Basic operations of a programming environment.
Problem Solving Approaches: Notion of an algorithm, problem solving using top-down design and decomposition into sub-problems, stepwise methodology of developing an algorithm, methodology of developing an algorithmic solution from a mathematical specification of the problem, use of recursion for problems with inductive characterization.
Programming using a modern programming language such as Java, emphasizing the following notions: Building blocks: arithmetic and logical expression, variables, assignment; Specifying the input-output interface (type); control structures including sequencing, conditionals, loops, procedural abstractions (procedures, methods); basic data structures-integers, reals, strings and arrays-and internal representation of scalar and vector data; data abstraction and encapsulation-objects, classes and packages; input/ output of data.
Numerical and non-numerical applications using above concepts.
PROGRAMMING TOOL: VISUAL BASIC
Introduction to Programming –Modular Programming, Object Oriented Programming, Event Driven Programming:
About Visual Basic (Object Based Programming Language), Rapid Application Development using Visual Basic;
Concept of Project In Visual Basic, VB Project Options- Standard EXE, ActiveX DLL, ActiveX EXE, ActiveX Control, Active X Document EXE, Addin, VB Application Wizard, IIS Application, DHTML Application;
Getting Familiar with Visual Basic User Interface-Pull-Down menus, Toolbar, Toolbox, Project Explorer, Properties Window, Form Layout Window, Form, Immediate window;


Opening and Closing window, Resizing and moving windows, Docking windows; Quitting Visual Basic;
Visual Basic Tool Box (Standard Window Controls)- Pointer, Picture Box, Lbel, Text Box, Frame, Command Button, Check Box, Option Button, Combo Box, List Box, Horizontal Scrollbar, Vertical Scrollbar, Timer, Drive List box, Directory List box, File List Box, Shape, Line, Image, Data, OLE;
Object Naming Conventions, Event Procedures;
Data Types: Integer, Long, Single, Double, Currency, String, Byte, Boolean, Date, Object, Variant;
Variables: Need to use variable, Declaring Variables, Variable Naming Convention, Assigning value to Variables, Data Types of variable, Scope and lifetime of Variables (Public and Private);
Menu Editor : Concept of menus, Shortcut menus and Popup menus Designing Menu System, Menu Editor Dialog Box Options (Name, Index, Shortcut, Help Context ID, Negotiate Position, Checked, Enabled, Visible, Window List, Right Arrow, Left Arrow, Up Arrow, Down Arrow, Menu List, Next, Insert, Delete, OK, Cancel), To Create Menu Controls in the Menu Editor, Menu Naming Conventions, Setting the Name Property, Creating a Menu Control Array, Creating Sub Menus, Separating Menu Controls, Assigning Access Keys and Shortcut Keys, Controlling Menus at Runtime-Enabling and Disabling Menu Commands, Displaying a Checkmark on a Menu Control, Making a Menu Control Invisible, Adding Menu Control at Runtime, Displaying Pop-Up Menu;
General Controls (Advance): Image List, Common Dialog Box, ADO DC, DB Combo, Media Player Control, DB Grid;
Adding a Toolbar: Creating an Image List, Adding Images to the Toolbar, To Add Code for the Toolbar Buttons;
Adding Status Bar: Adding Status Bar panels, Adding Time on the panel.
Dialog Boxes: Pre-defined dialog box, Custom dialog box;
DATA STRUCTURES
Introduction to the object-based and object-oriental programming paradigms; records, abstract data types and objects, data abstraction and internal representation; programming-in-the-large issues: modularity and code re-usability, classes and packages; graphical user interfaces; command-line arguments; interfacing with libraries and separate compilation; language support and OOP: Sub-typing, Inheritance, classes and subclasses, header files, function templates, overloading.
Programming with Data structures: Stacks, queues, lists, trees and balanced binary trees, specification of exception conditions and exception handling, notion of efficient algorithmic solution, efficient representations of data structures (e.g.sparse arrays), algorithms for searching and sorting.
PROGRAMMING IN C++
1. Object Oriented Programming: Concept of Object Oriented Programming- Data hiding, Data encapsulation, Class and Object, Abstract class and Concrete class, Polymorphism (Implementation of polymorphism using Function overloading as an example in C++); Inheritance, Advantages of Object Oriented Programming over earlier programming methodologies.
2. Implementation of Object Oriented Programming concepts in C++: definition of a class, Members of a class-Data Members AND Member Functions (methods), Using Private and Public visibility modes, default visibility mode (private); Member function definition: inside class definition and outside class definition using scope resolution operator (::); Declaration of objects as instances of a class; accessing members from object (s), Array of type class, Objects as function arguments-pass by value and pass by reference;
Constructor and Destructor:
Constructor: Special Characteristics, Declaration and Definition of a constructor, Default Constructor, Overloaded Constructors, Copy Constructor, Constructor with definition of destructor;
Destructor: Special Characteristics, Declaration and definition of destructor;
Inheritance (Extending Class): Concept of Inheritance, Base Class, Derived Class, Defining derived classes, protected visibility mode; Single level inheritance, Multilevel inheritance and Multiple inheritance, Privately derived, Publicly derived and Protectedly derived class, accessibility of members from objects and within derived class (es);
3. Data File Handling:
Need for a data file, Types of data files-Text file and Binary file;
Basic file operations on text file: Creating/ Writing text into file, Reading and Manipulation of text from an already existing text File (accessing sequentially);
Binary File: Creation of file, Writing data into file, Searching for required data from file, Appending data to a file, Insertion of data in sorted filed, Deletion of data from file, Modification of data in a file;


Implementation of above mentioned data file handling in C++;
Components of C++ to be used with file handling:
4. Pointers:
Declaration and Initialization of Pointers: Dynamic memory allocation/ deallocation operators: new, delete; Pointers and Arrays: Array of Pointers, Pointer to an array (1 dimensional array), Function returning a pointer. Reference variables and use of alias; Function call by reference. Pointer to structures: Deference operator: *,->; self referential structures;
RELATIONAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
1. Database Management System


Introduction to database concepts: Relation/ Table, attribute, Tuple/ Rows, fields, Data, Concept of String, Number and Date values, Data type and Data Integrity (Domain and Referential Integrity). Candidate key, Alternate key, Primary Key, Foreign Keys; Data Normalization-first, second, third, BCNF normal form;
Examples of Commercially available Database Management System’s (Back-End) – Oracle, MS-SQL Server, DB2, MySQL, Sybase, INGRES.
Examples of Front End Software’s: Oracle Developer, Visual Basic, Visual C++, Power Builder, Delphi;
2. RDBMS Tools: Oracle


ORACLE: Introduction, Version, Two Tier and Three Tier support;
Interface with oracle, Login Screen, Entering Name and Password;
Classification of SQL Statements: DML (SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE), DDL (CREATE, DROP, ALTER, RENAME, TRUNCATE), DCL (GRANT, REVOKE), TCL (COMMIT, ROLLBACK);
SQL SELECT Statement: SQL SELECT statement, Selecting All the Columns, Selecting Specific Column, Column Heading Default, Using Arithmetic Operators, Operator Precedence, Significance of NULL value, NULL values in Arithmetic Expressions, Defining and using Column Alias, Concatenation Operator (ll), Duplicate rows and their Elimination (DISTINCT keyword), Role of SQL and SQL*Plus in interacting with RDBMS, Displaying Table Structure (DESC command);
SELECT Statement Continued: Limiting Rows during selection (using WHERE clause), Working with Character Strings and Dates, Using Comparison operators, BETWEEN Operator, IN Operator, LIKE Operator, is null comparison, Logical Operators, Use of Logical Operators (AND/OR/NOT Operators), Logical Operator Precedence, ORDER BY Clause, Sorting in Ascending/Descending Order, Sorting By Column Alias Name, Sorting On multiple Columns;
Functions: SQL Functions, Types of SQL Function (Single Row/ Multiple Row), Single Row SQL Functions, Character Functions (Case Conversion/ Character Manipulation), Case Conversion Functions [lower (), InitCap (), UPPER ()] Character Manipulation Function [CONCAT (), INSTR (), LENGTH (), TRIM (), SUBSTR (), LPAD () ], Number Functions (ROUND (), TRUNC (), MOD() ), Working with Dates [LAST_DAY(), MONTHS_BETWEEN(), NEXT_DAY(), ADD_MONTHS(), ROUND(), TRUNC() ] Arithmetic Operation on Dates, Date Functions and their Usage, Data type Conversion Functions, Implicit and Explicit Conversion, TO_CHAR Function with Dates, TO_CHAR Function For Numbers, TO_NUMBER and TO_DATE Functions, NVL Function and its Usage, DECODE Function and its Usage;
Grouping Records: Concept of Grouping Records and Nested Grouping, Nested Grouping of records, Group Functions, Types of group functions [MAX (), MIN (), AVG (), SUM (), COUNT ()], using AVG and SUM Functions, Using MIN and MAX Functions, Using the COUNT Function, using COUNT(*), DISTINCT clause with Count, Group Functions and Null Values, Using NVL Function with Group Functions, Grouping Records: Group By Clause, Grouping By More than One Column, Illegal Queries with Group By Clause, Excluding Group Results: Having Clause, Nesting Group Functions.
Sub Queries: Concept of Sub-Query, Sub Query to solve a Problem, Guidelines for Using Sub Queries, Types of Sub-Queries (Single Row and Multiple Row) and (Single Column and Multiple Column); Single Row Sub-Query and its Execution;
Displaying Data From Multiple Tables: Concept of Join, Result of Join, Cartesian Product and Generating Cartesian Production example using Mathematical Set), Types of Joins (EQUL, SELF, NON-EQUI, OUTER (LEFT and RIGHT)), Equi-join, Additional Search Conditions using AND operator, Short Naming Convention for Tables (Table Aliases), Non-Equi join and its Implementation, Outer-Join and Its Usage, Self-Join (Joining a table to Itself);
Manipulating Data of A Table /Relation: Concept of DML (Data Manipulation Language), INSERT Statement, Inserting New Rows, Inserting New Rows, with Null Values, Inserting Date Values, Use OF substitution Variable to Insert Values, Copying Rows From Another Table, Update Statement to Change Existing Data of a Table, Updating Rows In A Table, Updating Rows Based on Another Table, Delete statement/ Removing Row/ Rows from a Table, Deleting, Rows Based on condition from another Table; Making Data Manipulation Permanent (COMMIT). Undo Data Manipulation Changes (ROLLBACK)


Database Objects: View, Table, Sequence, Index, and Synonyms, DDL (Data Definition Language), Naming Convention, Creating Views, Creating Synonyms, Simple Views and Complex Views, Retrieving Data From a View, Querying a View, Modifying a view.
Including Constraints: Constraints, Concept of using Constraints, Constraint Guidelines, Defining Constraints, NOT NULL, UNIQUE KEY, PRIMARY KEY, FOREIGN KEY, FOREIGN KEY Constraint Keywords, CHECK, Adding a constraint, Dropping a Constraint, Disabling Constraints, Enabling Constraints, Viewing Constraints, Viewing The Columns, Associated with Constraints;
Creation of a Table/ Relation: CREATE TABLE Statement, Data types, the DEFAULT option, Creating Tables, Referencing Another User’s Tables, Querying the Database Dictionary to view all tables in the Oracle Database, Creating a Table by Using a Sub-Query;
Managing Existing Tables and other Database Objects: The ALTER TABLE Statement, Adding a New Column in a Table, Modifying Existing Column, Dropping a Column, Renaming an Object, Truncating a Table, Adding Comments to a Table, Dropping Views, Dropping Synonyms, Dropping Tables; giving permission to other users to work on Created Tables and Revoking it (GRANT and REVOKE statement).
BUSINESS COMPUTING
General concept, User interfaces (front End), Underlying Database (back End), Integration of User Interface and Database;
More application areas of Databases:
Inventory control, Financial Accounting, Pay-Accounting System, Invoicing Management System, Personal Management System/ hard system, Fees Management System, Result Analysis System, Admission Management System, Income Tax Management System;
Advance Program Development Methodology: System Development Life Cycle, Relational Database Concept, Relational Database, Management System, Data Models (Entity Relationship Model), Entity and Entity Set, Attributes (Single, Composite and Multi-Valued), Relationship (One-to-One, One-to-Many and Many-to-Many), Entity Relationship Modeling Conventions, Communicating with an RDBMS using SQL, Relational Database Management System, SQL Statements, About programming language in SQL.
Data Dictionary, Data Warehousing, Data Mining, Meta Data;
Object Modeling: Introduction to object oriented modeling using Unified Modeling Language (Concepts only).
Client Server Computing: Concept of Client Server Computing.
WEB DEVELOPMENT
1. HTML/ DHTML


Introduction, Objectives, Introduction to Universal Resource Identifier (URI) – Fragment Identifiers and Relative URI’s, History of HTML, SGML, Structure of HTML/ DHTML Document, Switching between opened Windows and browser (Container tag, Empty tag, Attribute);
Basic Tags of HTML: HTML, HEAD, TITLE, BODY (Setting the Fore color and Background color, Background Image, Background Sound), Heading tag (H1 to H6) AND ATTRIBUTES (ALIGN), FONT tag and Attributes (Size: 1 to 7 Levels, BASEFONT, SMALL, BIG, COLOR), P, BR, Comment in HTML (), Formatting Text (B, I, U, EM, BLOCKQUOTE, PREFORMATTED, SUB, SUP, STRIKE), Ordered List-OL (L1, Type-1, I, A, a; START, VALUE), Unordered List-UL (Bullet Type- Disc, Circle, Square, DL, DT, DD), ADDRESS Tag;
Creating Links: Link to other HTML documents or data objects, Links to other places in the HTML documents, Links to places in other HTML documents;
Anchor Tag
2. Web Page Authoring Using HTML

Tables: Creating Tables, Border, TH,TR, TD, CELLSPACING, CELLPADDING, WIDTH, COLSPAN, CAPTION, ALIGN, CENTER;
Frames: Percentage dimensions, Relative dimensions, Frame- Src, Frameborder, height and width, Creating two or more rows Frames , Creating two or more Columns Frames , ,
Forms: Definition, Use- Written to a file, submitted to a database such as MS-Access or Oracle, E-mailed to someone in particular, Forms involve twoway communication;
From Tags: FORM,

3. Document Object Model

Concept and Importance of Document Object Model, Dynamic HTML document and Document Object Model.
Cascading Style Sheets
Introduction to Cascading Style Sheet (CSS), three ways of introducing the style sheets to your document. Basic Syntax; Creating and saving cascading style sheets.

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